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我們的位置:首頁 - 花城珠江電纜講講銅冶煉渣的選礦技術和難點
發布時間:2023.12.11 新聞來源:珠江電纜_廣州花城珠江電纜有限公司 瀏覽次數:

1.銅鍛煉渣的品種

在火法銅鍛煉進程中,一般經過熔煉、吹煉、精粹三個工序產出粗銅或陽極銅,陽極銅經過電解精粹成為電解銅。吹煉渣回來熔煉工序,精粹渣回來吹煉工序;熔煉渣、吹煉渣有的工廠依據工藝需求裝備火法貧化工序,因而會發生貧化渣。熔煉爐選用的傳統設備為鼓風爐、反射爐、電爐等,新建的現代化大型銅鍛煉廠多選用比較先進的工藝,歸納起來有兩類,一類是懸浮熔煉工藝,比方祥光銅業的旋浮熔煉、奧托昆普的閃速熔煉、INCO氧氣閃速熔煉和德國KHD公司的CONTOP接連頂吹熔煉等;請關注花城珠江電纜另(ling)一類是熔(rong)池熔(rong)煉(lian)工(gong)藝,比方(fang)諾蘭達熔(rong)煉(lian)法(fa)、三菱法(fa)、瓦紐科(ke)夫(fu)法(fa)、艾(ai)薩法(fa)和(he)(he)白銀法(fa)等。吹(chui)煉(lian)爐(lu)(lu)以選用(yong)臥式轉爐(lu)(lu)為主,少數(shu)選用(yong)虹吸式轉爐(lu)(lu)、三菱法(fa)吹(chui)煉(lian)爐(lu)(lu)和(he)(he)接連(lian)吹(chui)煉(lian)爐(lu)(lu)。由奧托昆普和(he)(he)肯尼科(ke)特一起(qi)研制的閃(shan)速吹(chui)煉(lian)、祥光(guang)銅業(ye)研制旋(xuan)浮吹(chui)煉(lian)現(xian)已成功(gong)用(yong)于工(gong)業(ye)化出產(chan),正逐(zhu)漸(jian)開展(zhan)成為干流(liu)趨(qu)勢。精粹廣泛選用(yong)回轉式精粹爐(lu)(lu),只需極少數(shu)選用(yong)反射(she)爐(lu)(lu)。

銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)又(you)稱銅(tong)(tong)(tong)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),按處理辦(ban)法(fa)不(bu)同分為火法(fa)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)和(he)(he)(he)濕法(fa)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),火法(fa)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)又(you)稱銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)或(huo)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)冶(ye)金爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),濕法(fa)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)又(you)稱銅(tong)(tong)(tong)浸出渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)或(huo)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)浸渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)。依(yi)照火法(fa)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)工(gong)藝又(you)分為熔(rong)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、吹煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、精粹(cui)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)和(he)(he)(he)貧化渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),依(yi)照設備(bei)不(bu)同分為鼓風爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、閃速爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、電爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、轉爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)和(he)(he)(he)反射(she)爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)等。依(yi)據渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)冷卻(que)辦(ban)法(fa)不(bu)同,分為水淬渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、天然(ran)冷卻(que)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、保溫冷卻(que)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)包緩冷渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)和(he)(he)(he)鑄(zhu)(zhu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)機鑄(zhu)(zhu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)等。

銅(tong)鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)(lu)渣的貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)選(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)火(huo)(huo)法(fa)(fa)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)和(he)選(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua),火(huo)(huo)法(fa)(fa)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)多(duo)選(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)電(dian)爐(lu)(lu)法(fa)(fa)和(he)反射爐(lu)(lu)法(fa)(fa),此(ci)外還有(you)真空貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)法(fa)(fa)、渣桶法(fa)(fa)、熔(rong)鹽提取(qu)法(fa)(fa)等(deng)(deng)。火(huo)(huo)法(fa)(fa)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)發生的爐(lu)(lu)渣即為棄渣。熔(rong)煉(lian)渣選(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)火(huo)(huo)法(fa)(fa)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)的較多(duo),只(zhi)需(xu)少數選(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)選(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)。而吹(chui)(chui)煉(lian)渣選(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)選(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)的較多(duo),許多(duo)工廠不再(zai)回(hui)來熔(rong)煉(lian)爐(lu)(lu)。近年來,因為銅(tong)鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)(lu)渣選(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)工藝具有(you)成本低、作(zuo)用(yong)(yong)(yong)好、節能環保(bao)等(deng)(deng)十分顯著的工業(ye)優勢,現(xian)已逐漸呈現(xian)出替代火(huo)(huo)法(fa)(fa)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)工藝的開展趨勢。現(xian)在選(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)選(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)的爐(lu)(lu)渣有(you)熔(rong)煉(lian)渣、吹(chui)(chui)煉(lian)渣、貧(pin)(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)渣。

2. 銅鍛煉渣(zha)的性質(zhi)與物(wu)相組成

銅鍛煉爐渣是火法(fa)冶金(jin)的(de)(de)一種(zhong)產品(pin),其(qi)組成(cheng)(cheng)首要來自礦石、熔劑、還(huan)原劑灰分(fen)中的(de)(de)造(zao)渣成(cheng)(cheng)分(fen),成(cheng)(cheng)分(fen)十分(fen)雜亂(luan)。但總的(de)(de)來說(shuo),爐渣是各(ge)種(zhong)氧(yang)化物(wu)的(de)(de)熔體,這類氧(yang)化物(wu)在不同(tong)的(de)(de)組成(cheng)(cheng)和溫度條件(jian)下能夠構成(cheng)(cheng)化合物(wu)、有少(shao)數硫化物(wu)、氮(dan)化物(wu)、硫酸鹽等。這些(xie)鹽有的(de)(de)來自質料(liao),有的(de)(de)是作為助(zhu)熔劑參加(jia)的(de)(de)。

一(yi)般情(qing)況下(xia),吹煉(lian)渣(zha)含(han)(han)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)檔(dang)次(ci)較(jiao)高,其次(ci)是熔煉(lian)渣(zha),熔煉(lian)渣(zha)經過(guo)貧化(hua)的(de)(de)貧化(hua)渣(zha)檔(dang)次(ci)最低(di),一(yi)般在1%以(yi)下(xia)。銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)多呈黑色(se)或(huo)是褐色(se),外表有(you)(you)金(jin)屬光(guang)澤,內部結構根本(ben)上(shang)為(wei)(wei)玻(bo)璃(li)(li)體,結構細(xi)密(mi)、硬而脆,化(hua)學(xue)成分比較(jiao)雜(za)亂,爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)中以(yi)鐵(tie)(tie)、二(er)氧化(hua)硅、氧化(hua)鈣、氧化(hua)鋁的(de)(de)含(han)(han)量(liang)較(jiao)高,占60%以(yi)上(shang)。因為(wei)(wei)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)來歷不(bu)同(tong),除了含(han)(han)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)外,還(huan)含(han)(han)有(you)(you)鈷(gu)、鎳等(deng)有(you)(you)價元素,一(yi)般還(huan)含(han)(han)有(you)(you)鉛、鋅、金(jin)、銀等(deng)有(you)(you)價金(jin)屬,但(dan)含(han)(han)量(liang)較(jiao)低(di)。從(cong)含(han)(han)量(liang)規(gui)(gui)模(mo)來看,鐵(tie)(tie)含(han)(han)量(liang)約為(wei)(wei)30~45%,銅(tong)(tong)(tong)含(han)(han)量(liang)有(you)(you)的(de)(de)在低(di)于(yu)1%,歸于(yu)貧銅(tong)(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)規(gui)(gui)模(mo),有(you)(you)的(de)(de)介乎于(yu)1~2%,歸于(yu)中等(deng)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)規(gui)(gui)模(mo),有(you)(you)的(de)(de)在2%以(yi)上(shang),歸于(yu)富銅(tong)(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)規(gui)(gui)模(mo)。礦(kuang)藏組成中絕大大都是鐵(tie)(tie)橄欖(lan)石,其次(ci)是磁(ci)鐵(tie)(tie)礦(kuang),還(huan)有(you)(you)少數脈(mo)石組成的(de)(de)玻(bo)璃(li)(li)體;其間(jian)的(de)(de)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)藏,因為(wei)(wei)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)工藝不(bu)同(tong),則以(yi)氧化(hua)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)、硫化(hua)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)、金(jin)屬銅(tong)(tong)(tong)、化(hua)合銅(tong)(tong)(tong)等(deng)方式以(yi)及(ji)不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)含(han)(han)量(liang)散布于(yu)爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)之中。此外,單個鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)廠因處理的(de)(de)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)石質料特別,發生(sheng)的(de)(de)爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)中含(han)(han)有(you)(you)金(jin)、銀、鈷(gu)等(deng)能夠收回的(de)(de)有(you)(you)價金(jin)屬。

銅(tong)鍛煉渣(zha)從(cong)廣義(yi)上看是(shi)一(yi)種(zhong)“人工礦(kuang)石(shi)(shi)”,它的物(wu)質組成結構是(shi)隨鍛煉進程的條(tiao)件(jian)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同而有(you)(you)所不(bu)(bu)(bu)同。銅(tong)鍛煉渣(zha)是(shi)一(yi)種(zhong)組成較為雜(za)亂的物(wu)質,一(yi)般含有(you)(you)5~6種(zhong)或更多種(zhong)氧(yang)化(hua)物(wu)及(ji)(ji)各種(zhong)硫化(hua)物(wu)、硫酸鹽(yan)以及(ji)(ji)其他微量(liang)成分(fen)(fen)。外(wai)觀一(yi)般為黑(hei)色或黑(hei)綠色、細密堅固,比重(zhong)約(yue)為4,渣(zha)中(zhong)含量(liang)最多的是(shi)鐵(tie)和(he)硅,首(shou)要礦(kuang)藏為鐵(tie)橄欖石(shi)(shi)和(he)磁(ci)鐵(tie)礦(kuang)及(ji)(ji)少(shao)數(shu)的磁(ci)黃鐵(tie)礦(kuang),硅大部分(fen)(fen)造渣(zha)生成鐵(tie)的硅酸鹽(yan),并有(you)(you)少(shao)數(shu)的硅呈(cheng)硅灰石(shi)(shi)及(ji)(ji)不(bu)(bu)(bu)透明的玻璃體;其次(ci)為銅(tong)的硫化(hua)物(wu)、金屬(shu)銅(tong)和(he)少(shao)數(shu)的氧(yang)化(hua)銅(tong)等;還含有(you)(you)極少(shao)數(shu)的金、銀、鎳、鈷(gu)等有(you)(you)價成分(fen)(fen),首(shou)要散布在(zai)磁(ci)性鐵(tie)化(hua)合物(wu)和(he)鐵(tie)的硅酸鹽(yan)中(zhong),以亞(ya)鐵(tie)硅酸鹽(yan)或硅酸鹽(yan)方式存在(zai)。

爐(lu)渣中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)銅(tong)(tong)多呈(cheng)硫化物形狀(zhuang)存在(zai),首要有似方輝(hui)銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)、輝(hui)銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)、黃(huang)銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)、似斑(ban)銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)和金屬銅(tong)(tong)等。銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)藏(zang)在(zai)渣中(zhong)常(chang)與(yu)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)橄(gan)欖石基體(ti)和磁(ci)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)礦(kuang)嵌布在(zai)一(yi)(yi)起,或呈(cheng)球狀(zhuang)被磁(ci)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)礦(kuang)所(suo)包(bao)裹。有的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)則(ze)是(shi)銅(tong)(tong)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)礦(kuang)藏(zang)一(yi)(yi)起構(gou)成(cheng)斑(ban)狀(zhuang)結構(gou)與(yu)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)橄(gan)欖石基體(ti)中(zhong),或數種(zhong)銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)藏(zang)嵌布共(gong)生。銅(tong)(tong)渣中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)藏(zang)和鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)礦(kuang)藏(zang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)粒度大小則(ze)隨爐(lu)渣的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)冷卻條件和爐(lu)渣組分不同而有著很(hen)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差異。爐(lu)渣中(zhong)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)與(yu)氧有較強的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)親和力,構(gou)成(cheng)氧化鐵(tie)(tie)(tie),其(qi)間一(yi)(yi)部(bu)分與(yu)渣中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)二氧化硅構(gou)成(cheng)低熔點的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)橄(gan)欖石,即爐(lu)渣的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)基體(ti),占(zhan)爐(lu)渣總鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)28%以上(shang),其(qi)余部(bu)分則(ze)是(shi)Fe304,占(zhan)爐(lu)渣總鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)30%以上(shang),尚有少(shao)數Fe2O3、FeS。渣中(zhong)二氧化硅除與(yu)FeO構(gou)成(cheng)鐵(tie)(tie)(tie)橄(gan)欖石外,還與(yu)CaO等構(gou)成(cheng)少(shao)數的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)硅灰石和玻璃相。

銅(tong)鍛煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)的(de)典型成分為(wei)Fe:29~40%、SiO2:30~40%、Al2O3: ≤10%、CaO: ≤11%、Cu: 0.42~4.6%;不同(tong)的(de)鍛煉(lian)(lian)辦法其組成有所不同(tong),不同(tong)熔煉(lian)(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)中銅(tong)、鐵物(wu)相組成和(he)含(han)量(liang)也各不相同(tong)。熔煉(lian)(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)銅(tong)檔次(ci)處于(yu)(yu)0.76~4.58%、鐵檔次(ci)40.92~45.99%之(zhi)間(jian)(jian)。銅(tong)熔煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)銅(tong)物(wu)相中首要(yao)以(yi)硫(liu)化(hua)(hua)銅(tong)為(wei)主,絕大大都占(zhan)到總(zong)銅(tong)散布率的(de)60%以(yi)上,最高(gao)抵(di)(di)達(da)87.13%,其次(ci)為(wei)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)銅(tong)和(he)金(jin)(jin)屬銅(tong),氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)銅(tong)則(ze)(ze)處于(yu)(yu)5~60%之(zhi)間(jian)(jian),最高(gao)可達(da)56.55%;金(jin)(jin)屬銅(tong)則(ze)(ze)處于(yu)(yu)9~25%之(zhi)間(jian)(jian),金(jin)(jin)屬銅(tong)高(gao)達(da)20.31%;單(dan)個(ge)(ge)爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)其它銅(tong)抵(di)(di)達(da)10%以(yi)上。鐵物(wu)相中以(yi)鐵橄欖(lan)石和(he)磁鐵礦(kuang)為(wei)主,二者之(zhi)和(he)占(zhan)到總(zong)鐵散布率的(de)80%以(yi)上;其間(jian)(jian)鐵橄欖(lan)石處于(yu)(yu)8~65%之(zhi)間(jian)(jian),最高(gao)達(da)62.14%;磁鐵礦(kuang)則(ze)(ze)處于(yu)(yu)33~45%之(zhi)間(jian)(jian),最高(gao)達(da)44.09%;單(dan)個(ge)(ge)赤褐鐵礦(kuang)散布率較高(gao),抵(di)(di)達(da)57.43%。

吹(chui)煉爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)以(yi)轉爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)為主,轉爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)是(shi)(shi)冰(bing)銅經轉爐(lu)(lu)吹(chui)煉而產出(chu)爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)。轉爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)外觀(guan)成(cheng)黑(hei)(hei)色和黑(hei)(hei)中(zhong)(zhong)透綠,性(xing)(xing)(xing)脆、堅(jian)固(gu)、結構細密(mi)(mi),密(mi)(mi)度約為4~4.5t/m3,渣(zha)(zha)(zha)中(zhong)(zhong)元素含(han)量最(zui)多的是(shi)(shi)鐵和硅,它們(men)都以(yi)化(hua)合態方式存在于(yu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)中(zhong)(zhong),首要成(cheng)分是(shi)(shi)鐵橄欖石和磁鐵礦。水淬銅渣(zha)(zha)(zha)是(shi)(shi)一種黑(hei)(hei)色、細密(mi)(mi)、堅(jian)固(gu)、耐磨的玻璃相,外觀(guan)呈(cheng)粒(li)狀(zhuang)和條狀(zhuang),攙雜有少數的針片狀(zhuang),外表有金屬光澤,顆(ke)粒(li)形狀(zhuang)不(bu)規則(ze),棱角清楚(chu),密(mi)(mi)度3.3~4.5t/m3,松懈密(mi)(mi)度為1.6~2.0 t/m3。,孔隙率為50%左右,細度模數為3.37~4.52,屬粗砂型渣(zha)(zha)(zha)。此外,爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)中(zhong)(zhong)含(han)有微量的有毒(du)元素、毒(du)性(xing)(xing)(xing)有機物(wu)、放射性(xing)(xing)(xing)物(wu)質,不(bu)具有浸出(chu)性(xing)(xing)(xing)毒(du)性(xing)(xing)(xing)、腐(fu)蝕性(xing)(xing)(xing)、放射性(xing)(xing)(xing)及(ji)急性(xing)(xing)(xing)毒(du)性(xing)(xing)(xing)中(zhong)(zhong)的任何一種以(yi)上的,為一般固(gu)體(ti)廢物(wu),能(neng)夠進(jin)行(xing)開發性(xing)(xing)(xing)研討。因(yin)為工藝條件不(bu)同,物(wu)相組成(cheng)也存在必定的差異。

吹(chui)煉轉(zhuan)爐渣銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)檔次處于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)1.74~7.26%、鐵檔次49.45~53.59%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間(jian)。銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)轉(zhuan)爐渣銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)物(wu)相中首(shou)要(yao)以(yi)硫化銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)和金屬銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)為主,二(er)者(zhe)(zhe)之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)和占(zhan)到總銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)散(san)布(bu)率的78%以(yi)上;其間(jian)硫化銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)處于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)44~96%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間(jian),最(zui)高可(ke)達90.4%;金屬銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)則(ze)處于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)15~36%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間(jian),最(zui)高達35.14%;氧化銅(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)則(ze)處于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)10~20%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間(jian),最(zui)高可(ke)達19.82%。鐵物(wu)相中以(yi)鐵橄(gan)欖(lan)石(shi)(shi)和磁(ci)鐵礦(kuang)為主,二(er)者(zhe)(zhe)之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)和占(zhan)到總鐵散(san)布(bu)率的50%以(yi)上;鐵橄(gan)欖(lan)石(shi)(shi)處于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)8~70%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間(jian),最(zui)高可(ke)達69.88%;磁(ci)鐵礦(kuang)處于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)26~80%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間(jian),最(zui)高抵達78.18%。

3. 銅鍛煉渣的選礦辦法(fa)

銅鍛煉(lian)爐渣(zha)(zha)在大大都情況(kuang)下含有(you)(you)(you)可(ke)收(shou)回(hui)的(de)(de)黑色(se)金屬、有(you)(you)(you)色(se)金屬以(yi)及稀(xi)貴金屬等(deng),往(wang)往(wang)是(shi)成(cheng)分改變很大的(de)(de)混合(he)(he)(he)物。假如想收(shou)回(hui)銅鍛煉(lian)爐渣(zha)(zha)中的(de)(de)各種有(you)(you)(you)價礦(kuang)(kuang)藏,能(neng)夠選(xuan)用多種選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦法(fa)。詳(xiang)細的(de)(de)爐渣(zha)(zha)選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦法(fa)應依(yi)(yi)據爐渣(zha)(zha)性質(zhi)和可(ke)收(shou)回(hui)金屬的(de)(de)品種而定。總的(de)(de)說來,銅鍛煉(lian)爐渣(zha)(zha)的(de)(de)選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦法(fa)包含浮游選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)、磁力選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)、重力選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)、化學(xue)選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)以(yi)及聯合(he)(he)(he)選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)等(deng)多種選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦法(fa)。以(yi)上每種選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦法(fa)又依(yi)(yi)據詳(xiang)細的(de)(de)流程和設(she)備的(de)(de)不(bu)同組合(he)(he)(he)分為更多的(de)(de)選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦法(fa)。

含(han)有(you)(you)(you)有(you)(you)(you)色(se)金(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)的(de)銅(tong)(tong)鍛煉爐(lu)(lu)渣中(zhong)的(de)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏一般(ban)(ban)可(ke)浮(fu)性(xing)(xing)強(qiang),多選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)浮(fu)游選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)法(fa)(fa)(fa)對有(you)(you)(you)色(se)金(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)進(jin)行(xing)收回,比(bi)方(fang)含(han)有(you)(you)(you)銅(tong)(tong)、鉛、鋅(xin)等金(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)的(de)鍛煉爐(lu)(lu)渣均(jun)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)浮(fu)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)。有(you)(you)(you)的(de)爐(lu)(lu)渣含(han)有(you)(you)(you)氧(yang)化銅(tong)(tong)、金(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)銅(tong)(tong)、金(jin)(jin)(jin)、銀礦(kuang)(kuang)藏,除(chu)了浮(fu)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)外(wai),依據銅(tong)(tong)、金(jin)(jin)(jin)、銀等礦(kuang)(kuang)藏比(bi)重(zhong)差異(yi)和(he)化學(xue)特性(xing)(xing)則(ze)能夠(gou)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)重(zhong)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)或許(xu)化學(xue)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)的(de)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)進(jin)行(xing)處理。有(you)(you)(you)的(de)銅(tong)(tong)鍛煉爐(lu)(lu)渣中(zhong)含(han)有(you)(you)(you)鐵和(he)鈷礦(kuang)(kuang)藏,因為均(jun)具有(you)(you)(you)較強(qiang)的(de)磁性(xing)(xing),能夠(gou)挑選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)磁選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)進(jin)行(xing)收回。含(han)有(you)(you)(you)稀貴金(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏的(de)鍛煉爐(lu)(lu)渣一般(ban)(ban)依據金(jin)(jin)(jin)屬(shu)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏的(de)比(bi)重(zhong)差異(yi)和(he)化學(xue)特性(xing)(xing)多選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)重(zhong)力選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)和(he)化學(xue)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)收回。比(bi)方(fang)含(han)金(jin)(jin)(jin)爐(lu)(lu)渣能夠(gou)用(yong)(yong)(yong)重(zhong)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)收回爐(lu)(lu)渣中(zhong)的(de)金(jin)(jin)(jin),也能夠(gou)用(yong)(yong)(yong)混(hun)汞或化學(xue)浸出等化學(xue)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)收回,也能夠(gou)使用(yong)(yong)(yong)含(han)金(jin)(jin)(jin)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏的(de)可(ke)浮(fu)性(xing)(xing)用(yong)(yong)(yong)浮(fu)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)進(jin)行(xing)收回,一般(ban)(ban)多選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)(yong)聯合選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)。

現在國(guo)際規模內,依(yi)據(ju)銅鍛煉爐渣(zha)的性質,使(shi)用(yong)于(yu)出產實踐的、老練的選礦(kuang)(kuang)工藝(yi),根本(ben)上以銅、鐵(tie)為首要收回目標。依(yi)據(ju)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)學爐渣(zha)性質特征(zheng),一般選用(yong)浮選和磁選的選礦(kuang)(kuang)辦法。關于(yu)含有稀散金屬礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)、難選礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)的爐渣(zha),要選用(yong)化學選礦(kuang)(kuang)或聯合選礦(kuang)(kuang)工藝(yi)來進行(xing)歸納收回處理。

4. 銅鍛煉渣選(xuan)技能的重要價(jia)值和(he)未來開展遠(yuan)景(jing)

銅鍛煉渣選礦技(ji)(ji)能(neng)是一種節能(neng)環保(bao)型技(ji)(ji)能(neng),具有十分重要的經濟價值和(he)環保(bao)價值。

曩昔,銅(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)轉(zhuan)爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)回(hui)來熔(rong)煉(lian)爐(lu)從頭熔(rong)煉(lian)時(shi),因為熔(rong)煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)黏(nian)性增大,使冰銅(tong)和(he)爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)別離條件變(bian)壞(huai),導致鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)歸納目標下降。后來,跟著國際銅(tong)冶(ye)金技能的不斷優化晉級,銅(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)選礦技能在銅(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)進程中得到使用和(he)開(kai)展,逐漸替代(dai)了銅(tong)渣(zha)(zha)火法貧化工(gong)藝(yi)后,渣(zha)(zha)回(hui)來量少(shao),大大削減爐(lu)床占(zhan)用面積(ji),消除了四氧(yang)化三鐵對熔(rong)煉(lian)的晦氣影響。

選用電爐貧(pin)化(hua)工藝(yi), 棄渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)銅(tong)(tong)含(han)量(liang)高(gao)達(da)0.5% ~0.6%,耗電抵達(da)145kW.h/t,環境污染嚴峻。芬蘭(lan)奧(ao)托(tuo)昆(kun)普公司(si)1996年(nian)曾經選用電爐貧(pin)化(hua)法(fa)(fa)處(chu)理閃速熔(rong)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)和吹(chui)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),棄渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)含(han)銅(tong)(tong)為(wei)(wei)(wei)0.5% ~0.7%,銅(tong)(tong)收回(hui)率(lv)為(wei)(wei)(wei)77%,而改用選礦(kuang)法(fa)(fa)后,渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)中含(han)銅(tong)(tong)量(liang)為(wei)(wei)(wei)0.3~0.35%,銅(tong)(tong)收回(hui)率(lv)進步至91.1%。大冶諾蘭(lan)達(da)爐試(shi)出產時,諾蘭(lan)達(da)熔(rong)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)用反射爐貧(pin)化(hua),棄渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)含(han)銅(tong)(tong)平均為(wei)(wei)(wei)0.73%,而改用選礦(kuang)貧(pin)化(hua)后,渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)含(han)銅(tong)(tong)降(jiang)到0.35%以下。銅(tong)(tong)收回(hui)率(lv)高(gao)達(da)94%以上(shang)。奧(ao)托(tuo)昆(kun)普公司(si),用電爐貧(pin)化(hua)時的電耗為(wei)(wei)(wei)90kwh/噸渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),而選礦(kuang)法(fa)(fa)為(wei)(wei)(wei)44.2kwh/噸渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)。在節(jie)能和進步銅(tong)(tong)收回(hui)率(lv)方(fang)面,渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)技能與比慣例火法(fa)(fa)比較,具有節(jie)能、收回(hui)率(lv)高(gao)級杰出長處(chu)。

在(zai)環(huan)(huan)境保(bao)(bao)護和(he)資(zi)源化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)方面,選礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)與火(huo)(huo)法(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)比較,無論是(shi)在(zai)基(ji)建投資(zi)仍(reng)是(shi)設備保(bao)(bao)護上都較為低價。火(huo)(huo)法(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)發生低濃(nong)度的(de)(de)SO2煙氣,不(bu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)經(jing)濟(ji)地處(chu)理(li)而直接排放到大(da)氣中,嚴峻污染環(huan)(huan)境。而選礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)法(fa)一般在(zai)常(chang)溫常(chang)壓及(ji)弱(ruo)堿介質中進(jin)行(xing),只需處(chu)理(li)好(hao)浮選廢水的(de)(de)處(chu)理(li)及(ji)回(hui)用問題,就(jiu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)夠做到對環(huan)(huan)境的(de)(de)“零污染”。火(huo)(huo)法(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)工藝(yi)(yi)僅限于對銅(tong)(tong)(tong)金屬的(de)(de)收回(hui), 而渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)不(bu)只能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)夠作為銅(tong)(tong)(tong)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)的(de)(de)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)工藝(yi)(yi),收回(hui)其間的(de)(de)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)藏,還能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)夠資(zi)源化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)收回(hui)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)中的(de)(de)其它有價資(zi)源。使銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)資(zi)源化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)、無害化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua),削減占地和(he)促進(jin)企業(ye)(ye)可(ke)(ke)持續開(kai)展(zhan)是(shi)我國確保(bao)(bao)企業(ye)(ye)健康開(kai)展(zhan)的(de)(de)根(gen)本國策,也(ye)是(shi)當今國際(ji)開(kai)展(zhan)的(de)(de)年(nian)代潮(chao)流(liu)。自2006年(nian)我國實施銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)職業(ye)(ye)準入準則后(hou),根(gen)本確立了渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)在(zai)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)職業(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)重要位置,使我國銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)企業(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)工藝(yi)(yi)逐漸(jian)走上了選礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)之路。因而,銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)替代火(huo)(huo)法(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)工藝(yi)(yi)是(shi)年(nian)代潮(chao)流(liu),勢不(bu)可(ke)(ke)擋。

我(wo)國(guo)(guo)(guo)是銅(tong)(tong)(tong)消費大(da)國(guo)(guo)(guo)和銅(tong)(tong)(tong)進(jin)口大(da)國(guo)(guo)(guo),自改(gai)革(ge)開(kai)放以(yi)來(lai),銅(tong)(tong)(tong)產(chan)(chan)值一(yi)直呈迅猛增加(jia)勢態,2000年(nian)我(wo)國(guo)(guo)(guo)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)產(chan)(chan)值抵達132萬噸(dun)(dun),逾越(yue)智利躍(yue)居國(guo)(guo)(guo)際第一(yi),2010年(nian)我(wo)國(guo)(guo)(guo)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)產(chan)(chan)值增加(jia)到479萬噸(dun)(dun),2020年(nian)猛增到1003噸(dun)(dun),2020年(nian)產(chan)(chan)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉渣(zha)產(chan)(chan)值抵達約3000多萬噸(dun)(dun)。國(guo)(guo)(guo)內銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉渣(zha)選礦技能現(xian)已(yi)取得了巨大(da)進(jin)步,可將(jiang)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉渣(zha)含銅(tong)(tong)(tong)檔次(ci)下降到0.25%以(yi)下,抵達國(guo)(guo)(guo)際領(ling)先水平。依照每年(nian)國(guo)(guo)(guo)產(chan)(chan)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉渣(zha)3000多萬噸(dun)(dun)核算,經過銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉渣(zha)選礦技能處(chu)理,每將(jiang)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)渣(zha)檔次(ci)下降0.1個百分(fen)點,依照銅(tong)(tong)(tong)現(xian)價58000元/噸(dun)(dun)核算,將(jiang)會多發明(ming)約17.4億元的(de)經濟效益(yi);銅(tong)(tong)(tong)渣(zha)中(zhong)含有近(jin)40%左右的(de)鐵,假如多收(shou)回1個百分(fen)點的(de)鐵,其發明(ming)的(de)財(cai)富也相當(dang)可觀。

在銅(tong)鍛(duan)煉爐(lu)渣(zha)中含有銅(tong)、鐵(tie)、鈷、鎳(nie)、鉛、鋅和硅(gui)等很(hen)多(duo)的有價元素。現在國家(jia)的銅(tong)資源嚴(yan)峻(jun)不足,對(dui)國外礦(kuang)(kuang)藏構成嚴(yan)峻(jun)依靠,我國鋼鐵(tie)工業(ye)開(kai)展迅速,對(dui)鐵(tie)礦(kuang)(kuang)石(shi)需求激增,而國內供應卻遠(yuan)不能(neng)滿意鋼鐵(tie)工業(ye)的需求。國際市場上鐵(tie)礦(kuang)(kuang)石(shi)價格接連幾年暴升,影響了(le)我國鋼鐵(tie)工業(ye)的健(jian)康(kang)開(kai)展。近年來,我國科技(ji)(ji)人(ren)員現已(yi)做了(le)很(hen)多(duo)的研討作業(ye),在銅(tong)渣(zha)改性歸納收(shou)回合(he)格檔次(ci)的鐵(tie)精礦(kuang)(kuang)、鐵(tie)合(he)金及隸屬金屬方面(mian),現已(yi)取得(de)了(le)可喜(xi)成果(guo)。因(yin)而,不難猜測銅(tong)鍛(duan)煉渣(zha)選礦(kuang)(kuang)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)將會(hui)有十分較好的使(shi)用遠(yuan)景(jing)。

我國渣(zha)選礦(kuang)技能已進入(ru)全面開(kai)展階段,《銅(tong)鍛煉(lian)渣(zha)選礦(kuang)》專著應運而生,及時滿(man)意了我國銅(tong)鍛煉(lian)開(kai)展的理論和(he)(he)學習的需求,遭到(dao)銅(tong)鍛煉(lian)職業(ye)廣闊(kuo)技能人(ren)員(yuan)和(he)(he)管(guan)理人(ren)員(yuan)的好評。

銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)選(xuan)礦技(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)現在首要使用(yong)于轉爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)、電(dian)爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)或二者(zhe)的(de)(de)(de)(de)混合渣(zha)(zha)(zha)以(yi)及閃速熔煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha);渣(zha)(zha)(zha)選(xuan)礦后的(de)(de)(de)(de)尾(wei)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)單(dan)個企業(ye)憑仗區域優勢(shi),以(yi)水泥(ni)填(tian)料方式出售給水泥(ni)廠,完成了無尾(wei)化(hua)出產;但大都偏僻企業(ye)遭到區域約束,尾(wei)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)依(yi)然以(yi)固(gu)廢方式堆存(cun)。伴(ban)跟(gen)著(zhu)國(guo)(guo)際銅(tong)(tong)(tong)冶金(jin)工業(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)開展和(he)資(zi)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)日益(yi)貧化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)緊張(zhang)局(ju)勢(shi),人(ren)們更多地考慮了資(zi)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)使用(yong)程(cheng)度、鍛煉(lian)經(jing)濟效益(yi)和(he)人(ren)類生存(cun)環境等問(wen)題;我(wo)國(guo)(guo)是國(guo)(guo)際上人(ren)均占有資(zi)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)最少的(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)家(jia),跟(gen)著(zhu)我(wo)國(guo)(guo)經(jing)濟的(de)(de)(de)(de)昌盛和(he)騰飛,我(wo)國(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)資(zi)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)危(wei)機就會(hui)越來越嚴峻,對資(zi)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)化(hua)循環技(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)需求就會(hui)越來越火急。深(shen)入開展銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)選(xuan)礦和(he)資(zi)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)化(hua)技(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)研討與使用(yong)作(zuo)業(ye),將(jiang)成為我(wo)國(guo)(guo)科技(ji)(ji)(ji)人(ren)員未來作(zuo)業(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)要點。銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)選(xuan)礦技(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)作(zuo)為銅(tong)(tong)(tong)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)貧化(hua)及資(zi)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)化(hua)技(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)基礎學科,是銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)資(zi)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)核心(xin)技(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng),學習和(he)把握銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)選(xuan)礦技(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng),在加(jia)速開展我(wo)國(guo)(guo)循環經(jing)濟、加(jia)強環境保(bao)護、削減資(zi)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)糟蹋和(he)增強國(guo)(guo)家(jia)實(shi)力(li)方面,將(jiang)會(hui)發生十分深(shen)遠(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)響(xiang)。

 

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