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我們的位置:首頁 - 新花城電線電纜講講海底電纜交聯聚乙烯絕緣(XLPE)的特點
發布時間:2024.01.12 新聞來源:珠江電纜_廣州花城珠江電纜有限公司 瀏覽次數:

 

交聯聚乙烯絕緣(XLPE)海底(di)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)開展于上世紀80年代(dai),大(da)都用于220kV及以(yi)下電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)等級[1],其制(zhi)作和(he)運(yun)轉經歷(li)還遠不如充油海底(di)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan).截止到現(xian)在,電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)等級Z高的(de)XLPE溝通海底(di)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)是耐克森(NEXANS)公司(si)正在為(wei)坐落挪威(wei)海的(de)大(da)型OrmenLange天然氣(qi)田設備的(de)2.2km長的(de)420kV4根單心(xin)海底(di)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan).500kV溝通長間隔海底(di)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan),現(xian)在運(yun)用的(de)僅有充油電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan).

與充油電纜比較,XLPE電纜具有以(yi)下長處:

①XLPE電(dian)纜是固體(ti)絕緣,不需(xu)雜亂(luan)的充油(you)體(ti)系,不需(xu)要檢(jian)測油(you)位、操控(kong)油(you)壓,運轉費用低;

②XLPE電(dian)纜沒有鉛(qian)護(hu)套,曲折半徑小、質量(liang)輕,可(ke)出產、敷設(she)的長(chang)度更(geng)長(chang),且在敷設(she)設(she)備和(he)運(yun)送時都要比充油(you)電(dian)纜簡略;

③XLPE海(hai)底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)氣功能和(he)(he)機械功能也都(dou)優(you)于(yu)充(chong)油電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan).正因如(ru)此,XLPE絕(jue)緣海(hai)底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)的(de)開(kai)展有(you)著更寬廣的(de)遠(yuan)景(jing),但也有(you)很多技術(shu)問題需要處(chu)理(li).一(yi)般(ban)的(de)交聯聚(ju)乙烯(xi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)在直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓作用下,電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)絕(jue)緣中(zhong)的(de)空間電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)荷會在某處(chu)會集,然后構成此處(chu)部分場強(qiang)過高(gao)(gao)而被(bei)擊穿.在絕(jue)緣資(zi)(zi)料(liao)(liao)中(zhong)選用增加(jia)劑能夠減緩電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)絕(jue)緣中(zhong)空間電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)荷累積,使得交聯聚(ju)乙烯(xi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)能夠用于(yu)直流(liu)(liu)高(gao)(gao)壓供電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian).2002年,榜首(shou)根擠包型單心(xin)直流(liu)(liu)海(hai)底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(輕型直流(liu)(liu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan),瑞典ABB),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓±150kV,長度(du)(du)40km,容量330MW,用于(yu)銜接紐約長島和(he)(he)美國的(de)康涅狄(di)格.這種直流(liu)(liu)海(hai)底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)選用3層(ceng)聚(ju)合資(zi)(zi)料(liao)(liao)揉捏成單極性電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan),表(biao)里屏蔽層(ceng)與絕(jue)緣層(ceng)一(yi)起揉捏,具有(you)高(gao)(gao)強(qiang)度(du)(du)、環(huan)保(bao)和(he)(he)便于(yu)埋(mai)葬等長處(chu),適(shi)用于(yu)深(shen)海(hai)等惡(e)劣環(huan)境。

XLPE絕緣(yuan)直(zhi)流海(hai)(hai)底電纜(lan)(lan)現Z高電壓(ya)可(ke)達320kV溝通(tong)電纜(lan)(lan)絕緣(yuan)中(zhong)的等(deng)效(xiao)電容隨電纜(lan)(lan)長度增(zeng)加而增(zeng)大,在能量傳輸過(guo)程中(zhong),等(deng)效(xiao)電容與電源間不停地進行著充電放電,其充電電流可(ke)到達極大值而影響正常有(you)功負荷的傳輸,所以溝通(tong)海(hai)(hai)底電纜(lan)(lan)有(you)個理論上(shang)的極限

傳輸間隔(ge),多(duo)個(ge)跨(kua)海(hai)工程標明(ming),該(gai)間隔(ge)約為40km[3],超越這(zhe)個(ge)間隔(ge),選用溝通傳輸電(dian)能就不具(ju)經(jing)濟性了(le).而(er)直(zhi)流電(dian)纜(lan)長度不受充(chong)電(dian)電(dian)流約束,無(wu)需無(wu)功補償設備,制作設備簡潔,介損和導(dao)體損耗小(xiao),有著(zhu)杰(jie)出的市場遠(yuan)景.但高壓(ya)(ya)直(zhi)流海(hai)底電(dian)纜(lan)還有如空間電(dian)荷堆集機(ji)理及其按捺辦法、直(zhi)流電(dian)壓(ya)(ya)下(xia)的絕緣老化機(ji)理、新開發(fa)絕緣資(zi)料的長時間穩定性,部分放電(dian)的影響等很多(duo)問(wen)題有待研(yan)討(tao)處(chu)理."

一般(ban)超高(gao)壓(ya)溝通海底(di)電纜(lan)都是單心的,但由于3心溝通海底(di)電纜(lan)能夠節約出產和敷設的費用,所(suo)以大截(jie)面、

高(gao)(gao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)等(deng)(deng)(deng)級的(de)3心XLPE溝(gou)通海底(di)(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)也在(zai)逐步(bu)推廣.2008年(nian),耐克森公(gong)司在(zai)加拿大(da)(da)敷設(she)了國際上榜首根電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)達245kV的(de)3心XLPE絕緣(yuan)海底(di)(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan).聚(ju)乙(yi)烯(PE)絕緣(yuan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)和EPR(乙(yi)丙(bing)橡(xiang)皮(pi))絕緣(yuan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)乙(yi)丙(bing)橡(xiang)皮(pi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)與(yu)XLPE電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(tgδ≤0.0005)比(bi)較(jiao),介(jie)(jie)損正切值tgδ、和介(jie)(jie)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)常數(shu)ε都比(bi)較(jiao)大(da)(da),但與(yu)聚(ju)乙(yi)烯電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)比(bi)較(jiao)更能避免樹枝及(ji)部分放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),一般只用于中(zhong)等(deng)(deng)(deng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)的(de)海底(di)(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan).到現在(zai)為止(zhi),Z高(gao)(gao)等(deng)(deng)(deng)級的(de)乙(yi)丙(bing)橡(xiang)皮(pi)海底(di)(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)是2001年(nian)設(she)備在(zai)意大(da)(da)利威尼斯(si)-穆拉諾-梅斯(si)特(Venezia-Murano-Mestre)的(de)150kV海底(di)(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan).

充氣式電纜

充(chong)氣(qi)式(shi)海底(di)(di)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)在結構上(shang)與充(chong)油電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)很類似,也運用預先(xian)浸漬好的(de)(de)紙(zhi)帶(dai)(dai)做(zuo)絕(jue)緣,再充(chong)入帶(dai)(dai)壓(ya)(ya)力的(de)(de)氮氣(qi),帶(dai)(dai)壓(ya)(ya)力的(de)(de)氣(qi)體填充(chong)了紙(zhi)帶(dai)(dai)間的(de)(de)空(kong)地(di),提高了擊穿電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya).充(chong)氣(qi)式(shi)海底(di)(di)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)可用于(yu)交(jiao)直(zhi)流(liu)輸電(dian)(dian),它比充(chong)油式(shi)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)更適合于(yu)較(jiao)長的(de)(de)海底(di)(di)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)網.但由于(yu)需在深水下(xia)運用高氣(qi)壓(ya)(ya)操作,故此(ci)增加了規劃電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)及其配件的(de)(de)困難,該電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)一(yi)般限于(yu)水深為300m以內(nei).

海底電纜(lan)的(de)相關技術問題

海底電纜的防水

當機械應力(li)或外力(li)構成電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)護套(tao)及絕(jue)(jue)緣損害、接頭損壞(huai)時(shi),潮(chao)氣(qi)或水(shui)分(fen)(fen)會沿著電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)縱向(xiang)和徑(jing)向(xiang)空(kong)隙(xi)浸入,下(xia)降(jiang)絕(jue)(jue)緣的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)氣(qi)強度,因而(er)大(da)都高壓(ya)(ya)海底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)都具(ju)有(you)(you)(you)避免(mian)水(shui)分(fen)(fen)侵(qin)略(lve)的(de)(de)(de)縱向(xiang)、徑(jing)向(xiang)防(fang)水(shui)辦(ban)法.徑(jing)向(xiang)辦(ban)法首要(yao)(yao)是(shi)(shi)(shi)在(zai)絕(jue)(jue)緣屏蔽和金屬(shu)屏蔽層外面繞包(bao)半(ban)(ban)導電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻水(shui)脹大(da)帶,在(zai)金屬(shu)屏蔽層外面增(zeng)加金屬(shu)防(fang)水(shui)層即金屬(shu)護套(tao),中壓(ya)(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)場(chang)強度相對較低,一般運用鋁塑復合(he)護套(tao),也有(you)(you)(you)僅用聚(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)物護套(tao)的(de)(de)(de),高壓(ya)(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)則選用鉛、鋁、不銹鋼(gang)的(de)(de)(de)金屬(shu)密(mi)封套(tao).聚(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)物護套(tao)具(ju)有(you)(you)(you)防(fang)水(shui)性(xing),但(dan)卻有(you)(you)(you)必(bi)定的(de)(de)(de)吸水(shui)率(lv),這是(shi)(shi)(shi)由于其結(jie)構首要(yao)(yao)是(shi)(shi)(shi)由結(jie)晶(jing)相和無定形相組成的(de)(de)(de)半(ban)(ban)結(jie)晶(jing)高聚(ju)(ju)(ju)物.結(jie)晶(jing)相結(jie)構緊湊,無定形相中的(de)(de)(de)分(fen)(fen)子(zi)擺放(fang)疏(shu)松,分(fen)(fen)子(zi)間(jian)存在(zai)較大(da)的(de)(de)(de)空(kong)隙(xi).在(zai)交變(bian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)場(chang)的(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)用下(xia),極性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)水(shui)分(fen)(fen)子(zi)不斷(duan)來回翻轉,能夠(gou)透(tou)過(guo)空(kong)隙(xi)和晶(jing)界(jie)缺點處滲透(tou)到(dao)絕(jue)(jue)緣資(zi)料中.選用聚(ju)(ju)(ju)合(he)物護套(tao)時(shi),護套(tao)里要(yao)(yao)加具(ju)有(you)(you)(you)吸水(shui)作(zuo)用的(de)(de)(de)阻水(shui)劑.

縱(zong)向阻水(shui)(shui)首(shou)要選(xuan)用(yong)①壓緊(jin)型線心;②在導線之間(jian)和(he)纜心屏蔽區增加阻水(shui)(shui)性物質(zhi),阻斷(duan)水(shui)(shui)分(fen)在纜心中的(de)(de)分(fen)散通道(dao).縱(zong)向阻水(shui)(shui)選(xuan)用(yong)阻水(shui)(shui)粉填充(chong)作用(yong)好(hao),它的(de)(de)吸水(shui)(shui)量為本身(shen)的(de)(de)幾十倍(bei)甚至幾千(qian)倍(bei),吸水(shui)(shui)強度(du)大(da)、脹大(da)率(lv)高,吸水(shui)(shui)后可敏捷脹大(da)構成凝(ning)膠狀物質(zhi),堵塞滲水(shui)(shui)通道(dao),停止水(shui)(shui)分(fen)和(he)潮(chao)氣(qi)的(de)(de)進一(yi)步分(fen)散和(he)延伸,使受(shou)潮(chao)電(dian)纜的(de)(de)長度(du)降到Z低。

 

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